Sioux Falls Zoologists

"Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent!"

The mirror test is an experiment developed in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. to determine whether an animal possesses the ability to recognize itself in a mirror. It is the primary indicator of self-awareness in non-human animals and marks entrance to the mirror stage by human children in developmental psychology. Animals that pass the mirror test are: Humans older than 18 mo, Chimpanzees, Bonobos, Orangutans, Gorillas, Bottlenose Dolphins, Orcas (Killer Whales), Elephants, and European Magpies. Others showing signs of self-awareness are Pigs, some Gibbons, Rhesus Macaques, Capuchin Monkeys, some Corvids (Crows & Ravens) and Pigeons w/training. (Sorry Kitty!)

Animal Intelligence Books
Endorsed by Sioux Falls Zoologists

Sioux Falls Zoologists recommends the following books that describe animal intelligence, animal communications, animal emotions, animal moral codes and other animal behavior. Moral Codes? Yes, animals do have a sense of justice, a sense of right and wrong. They reward good behavior, often with grooming, and they punish bad behavior, often with a sharp nip. Seems logical. Evolution would reinforce that which helps the group survive, and not reinforce behavior the reduces the survival of the group. The book Wild Justice goes into this in some detail.

Sioux Falls Zoologists have assembled in this book collection the definitive books on animal intelligence and animal communication, examples of animal intelligence and animal emotions that will amaze you. These are not creatures of pure instinct anymore than we are. These books delve into the motivation of animal behavior. What they are thinking. They think and behave according to the survival values of the specific animal involved. Don't expect an animal to act like a human, don't expect a predator to act like a prey species. All animals will act in accordance with what helps it survive and breed. In that regard humans and other animals are exactly the same.

The books are all available from Amazon.com but you are free to obtain them from many other sources. Amazon offers them on their website along with many alternate sources, often less expensive. You are free to choose whatever source you please. The book links on the following pages point to the book location at Amazon.

The 9 animal intelligence books and 1 article are described on the following 10 pages:

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Animal Intelligence Books
Endorsed by Sioux Falls Zoologists