Sioux Falls Zoologists

"Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent!"

The mirror test is an experiment developed in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. to determine whether an animal possesses the ability to recognize itself in a mirror. It is the primary indicator of self-awareness in non-human animals and marks entrance to the mirror stage by human children in developmental psychology. Animals that pass the mirror test are: Humans older than 18 mo, Chimpanzees, Bonobos, Orangutans, Gorillas, Bottlenose Dolphins, Orcas (Killer Whales), Elephants, and European Magpies. Others showing signs of self-awareness are Pigs, some Gibbons, Rhesus Macaques, Capuchin Monkeys, some Corvids (Crows & Ravens) and Pigeons w/training. (Sorry Kitty!)

Sioux Falls Zoologists endorse Microcosmos for showing how
insects survive in a world where size really matters.

Beyond Anything We Could Imagine

Microcosmos (2005) - 80 minutes
Microcosmos at

A French meadow on a summer's day is the setting for this incredible, highly-acclaimed film that takes its microscopic cameras into the heart of the insect world.

In this miniature environment where a single raindrop can cause havoc, we are treated to an array of jaw-dropping moments: an underwater spider makes a home out of an air bubble, a colony of ants face a massacre when a pheasant attacks and a determined beetle struggles to relocate his ball of dung.

There's drama, comedy, action and even a little love in this astonishing film that invites us to share the trials and tribulations of its wonderful cast.

8-16-18 Future robot swarms should copy lazy ants who let others do the work
The optimum strategy for tunnelling ants is to leave all of the digging to just a few workers. Swarms of robots could use similar techniques for clearing rubble. Too many cooks spoil the broth, and the same goes for ants. A study into how ants cooperate has found that the optimum strategy is for most of them not to do any work. The findings may be useful for creating large swarms of robots. Ants create networks of narrow underground tunnels by excavating soil bit by bit as a team. To understand the strategies they use, Daniel Goldman at Georgia Tech and his colleagues placed 30 ants into a transparent container filled with glass soil-like particles. For 48 hours ants entered and exited the tunnels hundreds of times to extend the network, but surprisingly only 30 per cent of the ants did around 70 per cent of the work. “Only a few ants would do the majority of the work, with the rest just hanging out trying to avoid clogging up the tunnel,” says Goldman. To further understand the process, Goldman and his colleagues tested out different strategies with four excavation robots. “One dug OK. Two dug OK. Three was kind of good. But with four the robots just couldn’t get anywhere,” says Goldman. However smart his team made the robots they kept causing clogs unless some took a back seat. The results suggest when groups of individuals work together, the best strategy may be for some to hang back, he says. The work can help uncover some of the strategies that biological organisms have evolved to use, but may also help write better software for controlling swarms of robots.

8-16-18 Here’s what robots could learn from fire ants
In tight quarters, sharing the work equally leads to traffic jams. Robots, take note: When working in tight, crowded spaces, fire ants know how to avoid too many cooks in the kitchen. Observations of fire ants digging an underground nest reveal that a few industrious ants do most of the work while others dawdle. Computer simulations confirm that, while this strategy may not be the fairest, it is the most efficient because it helps reduce overcrowding in tunnels that would gum up the works. Following fire ants’ example could help robot squads work together more efficiently, researchers report in the Aug. 17 Science. Robots that can work in close, crowded quarters without tripping each other up may be especially good at digging through rubble for search-and-rescue missions, disaster cleanup or construction, says Justin Werfel, a collective behavior researcher at Harvard University who has designed insect-inspired robot swarms (SN: 3/22/14, p. 8).

3-27-18 Beetlemania: How a supergroup scuttled to world domination
Handsome, hardy and diverse, beetles are supremely successful critters with a lot to teach us – but they’re suffering from our environmental waywardness. WHEN biologist J.B.S. Haldane was asked by a theologian back in the 1940s what we could infer about the mind of the creator from the works of creation, he supposedly replied, “an inordinate fondness for beetles”. The story is almost certainly apocryphal, but it reveals both an undeniable truth and an open question. Judging by their sheer numbers, God is certainly fond of beetles. But just how fond? The number of beetle species is just one lacuna in our knowledge of these extraordinarily successful creatures. Another is what makes them quite so successful. As we slowly fill in the gaps, we are beginning to appreciate the unique insights these insects can give us. Whether we want to understand evolution, the workings of the biosphere or how plate tectonics has shaped the continents, beetles hold the answers. But let’s deal with the numbers question first. New beetle species have been described at an average rate of about four a day since 1758, when Carl Linnaeus started cataloguing plants and animals using the two-part Latin scientific names we know today. Towards the end of the 20th century, there was general agreement that the total count was heading towards 400,000 species, based on specimens housed in the world’s museums and carefully documented in 250 years of scientific journals and monographs. Compare that with 5500 mammals, 10,000 birds, 85,000 molluscs and 250,000 plant species, and it is clear that in diversity beetles far outstrip any other multicellular organisms, perhaps quietly brushing aside nematode worms.

3-27-18 Beetlemania: Five amazing beetles from around the world
Whether it is harvesting water, doing origami or hitching free rides on termite backs, the sheer diversity of beetle behaviour is the key to their success.

  1. Head-stander beetles
  2. Hazel leaf-roller
  3. Giraffe weevil
  4. American burying beetle
  5. [No common name]

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Beyond Anything We Could Imagine

Sioux Falls Zoologists endorse Microcosmos for showing how
insects survive in a world where size really matters.